This is an introductory mini-unit to lighting that can be achieved whether or not you have a lighting system. Students will work toward being able to demonstrate their knowledge of lighting effectiveness.
The questions of the unit include: How can light affect a scene? How can lighting affect the audience? What is the mood of the scene? How does lighting play a part in creating mood? How can you use shadows onstage? How does color impact the scene?
National Core Arts Standards
Perceive and analyze artistic work - Grade 6
TH:Re7.1.6.a - Describe and record personal reactions to artistic choices in a drama/theatre work.
Generate and conceptualize artistic ideas and work - Grade 6
TH:Cr1.1.6.b - Identify solutions to design challenges in a drama/theatre work.
Generate and conceptualize artistic ideas and work - Grade 7
TH:Cr1.1.7.b - Explain and present solutions to design challenges in a drama/ theatre work.
Generate and conceptualize artistic ideas and work - Grade 8
TH:Cr1.1.8.b - Imagine and explore solutions to design challenges of a performance space in a drama/theatre work.
Generate and conceptualize artistic ideas and work - High School Proficient
TH:Cr1.1.HSI.b - Explore the impact of technology on design choices in a drama/theatre work.
Generate and conceptualize artistic ideas and work - High School Accomplished
TH:Cr1.1.HSII.b - Understand and apply technology to design solutions for a drama/theatre work.
Develop and refine artistic techniques and work for presentation - Grade 8
TH:Pr5.1.8.b - Use a variety of technical elements to create a design for a rehearsal or drama/theatre production.
Develop and refine artistic techniques and work for presentation - Grade HS Proficient
TH:Pr5.1.HSI.b - Use researched technical elements to increase the impact of design for a drama/theatre production.
Develop and refine artistic techniques and work for presentation - Grade HS Accomplished
TH:Pr5.1.HSII.b - Apply technical elements and research to create a design that communicates the concept of a drama/theatre production.
Apply criteria to evaluate artistic work - Grade 6
TH:Re9.1.6.b - Apply the production elements used in a drama/theatre work to assess aesthetic choices.
Refine new work through play, drama processes and theatre experiences using critical analysis and experimentation - Grade 7
TH:Cr3.1.7.c - Consider multiple planned technical design elements during the rehearsal process for a devised or scripted drama/theatre work.
Apply criteria to evaluate artistic work - Grade 8
TH:Re9.1.8.b - Apply the production elements used in a drama/theatre work to assess aesthetic choices.
Apply criteria to evaluate artistic work - Grade HS Proficient
TH:Re9.1.HSI.b - Consider the aesthetics of the production elements in a drama/theatre work.
Speaking and Listening
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.1 - Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.2 - Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.3 - Evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.L.1 - Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.L.2 - Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
California VAPA Standards (2019)
6.TH:Re7 Perceive and analyze artistic work.
6.TH:Re7 - Describe and record personal reactions to artistic choices in a drama/theatre work.
6.TH:Cr1 Generate and conceptualize artistic ideas and work
6.TH:Cr1.c - Identify solutions to design challenges in a drama/theatre work.
7.TH:Cr1 Generate and conceptualize artistic ideas and work
7.TH:Cr1.c - Explain and present solutions to design challenges in a drama/ theatre work.
8.TH:Cr1 Generate and conceptualize artistic ideas and work
8.TH:Cr1.c - Imagine and explore solutions to design challenges of a performance space in a drama/theatre work.
Prof.TH:Cr1 Generate and conceptualize artistic ideas and work
Prof.TH:Cr1.c - Explore the impact of technical theatre elements on design choices in a drama/theatre work.
Acc.TH:Cr1 Generate and conceptualize artistic ideas and work.
Acc.TH:Cr1.c - Understand and apply technical theatre elements to design solutions for a drama/theatre work.
8.TH:Pr5 Develop and refine artistic techniques and work for presentation.
8.TH:Pr5.b - Use a variety of technical theatre elements to create a design for a rehearsal or drama/theatre production.
Prof.TH:Pr5 Develop and refine artistic techniques and work for presentation.
Prof.TH:Pr5.b - Use researched technical theatre elements to increase the impact of design for a drama/theatre production.
Acc.TH:Pr5 Develop and refine artistic techniques and work for presentation.
Acc.TH:Pr5.b - Apply technical theatre elements and research to create a design that communicates the concept of a drama/theatre production.
6.TH:Re9 Apply criteria to evaluate artistic work.
6.TH.Re9.c - Identify the technical theatre elements used in a drama/theatre work to justify aesthetic choices.
7.TH:Cr3 Refine and complete artistic work.
7.TH:Cr3.c - Consider multiple planned technical theatre elements and designs during the rehearsal process for a devised or scripted drama/theatre work.
8.TH:Re9 Apply criteria to evaluate artistic work.
8.TH.Re9.c - Differentiate the effect of technical theatre elements used in a drama/theatre work to assess aesthetic choices.
Prof.TH:Re9 Apply criteria to evaluate artistic work.
Prof.TH.Re9.c - Analyze and evaluate the aesthetics and effect of the technical theatre elements in a drama/theatre work.
Florida Sunshine State Standards
Critical Thinking & Reflection
TH.68.C.1.4 - Create and present a design, production concept, or performance and defend artistic choices.
TH.68.C.1.5 - Describe how a theatrical activity can entertain or instruct an audience.
TH.68.C.2.2 - Keep a rehearsal journal to document individual performance progress.
TH.68.C.2.3 - Ask questions to understand a peer's artistic choices for a performance or design.
TH.68.C.2.4 - Defend personal responses to a theatre production.
TH.68.C.3.1 - Discuss how visual and aural design elements communicate environment, mood, and theme in a theatrical presentation.
TH.912.C.1.3 - Justify a response to a theatrical experience through oral or written analysis, using correct theatre terminology.
TH.912.C.2.1 - Explore and describe possible solutions to production or acting challenges and select the solution most likely to produce desired results.
Historical & Global Connections
TH.68.H.1.1 - Explore potential differences when performing works set in a variety of historical and cultural contexts.
TH.68.H.1.5 - Describe one's own personal responses to a theatrical work and show respect for the responses of others.
TH.68.H.2.4 - Discuss the differences between presentational and representational theatre styles.
TH.68.H.2.5 - Compare decorum, environments, and manners from a variety of cultures and historical periods to discover and influence historical acting styles and design choices.
TH.68.H.2.6 - Describe historical and cultural influences leading to changes in theatre performance spaces and technology.
TH.68.H.2.8 - Identify and describe theatrical resources in the community, including professional and community theatres, experts, and sources of scripts and materials.
TH.68.H.3.3 - Use brainstorming as a method to discover multiple solutions for an acting or technical challenge.
TH.68.H.3.6 - Discuss ways in which dance, music, and the visual arts enhance theatrical presentations.
Innovation, Technology & the Future
TH.68.F.1.1 - Manipulate various design components to imagine the world of the character.
TH.68.F.1.4 - Survey an aspect of theatre to understand the ways in which technology has affected it over time.
TH.68.F.2.1 - Research careers in the global economy that are not directly related to the arts, but include skills that are arts based or derive part of their economic impact from the arts.
TH.68.F.2.2 - Identify industries within the state of Florida that have a significant impact on local economies, in which the arts are either directly or indirectly involved in their success.
TH.68.F.3.2 - Develop a list of line items that would typically be found in a production budget for a performance.
TH.68.O.1.2 - Discuss how color, line, shape, and texture are used to show emotion in technical theatre elements.
TH.68.O.1.3 - Explain the impact of choices made by directors, designers, and actors on audience understanding.
TH.68.O.1.4 - Discuss how the whole of a theatre performance is greater than the sum of its parts.
TH.68.O.2.1 - Diagram the major parts of a play and their relationships to each other.
TH.68.O.2.2 - Explain how a performance would change if depicted in a different location, time, or culture.
TH.68.O.2.5 - Explain how the contributions of significant playwrights, performers, directors, designers, and producers from various cultures and historical periods have influenced the creative innovations of theatre.
TH.68.O.3.1 - Compare theatre and its elements and vocabulary to other art forms.
Skills, Techniques & Processes
TH.68.S.1.3 - Describe criteria for the evaluation of dramatic texts, performances, direction, and production elements.
TH.68.S.1.4 - Discuss the ways in which theatre experiences involve empathy and aesthetic distance.
TH.68.S.2.1 - Discuss the value of collaboration in theatre and work together to create a theatrical production.
TH.68.S.2.3 - Analyze the relationships of plot, conflict, and theme in a play and transfer the knowledge to a play that contrasts in style, genre, and/or mood.
TH.68.S.3.2 - Use the elements of dramatic form to stage a play.
TH.68.S.3.4 - Lead small groups to safely select and create elements of technical theatre to signify a character or setting.
Georgia Performance Standards - Theatre Arts
Grade 6 - Creating
TA6.CR.1 - Organize, design, and refine theatrical work.
a. Identify artistic choices, utilize theatre vocabulary, and demonstrate non-verbal communication skills in the rehearsal process.
b. Interpret a character’s motivation by understanding the relationship between their background and their behavior.
c. Identify the variety of relationships between characters.
d. Identify, define, and classify character traits.
e. Recognize and demonstrate the roles, responsibilities, and skills associated with collaborative performance.
f. Use resources to identify and create technical elements of theatre.
Grade 6 - Performing
TA6.PR.2 - Execute artistic and technical elements of theatre.
a. Incorporate technical elements in performance.
Grade 7 - Creating
TA7.CR.1 - Organize, design, and refine theatrical work.
a. Identify and rehearse effective communication skills.
b. Compare and contrast character types and relationships by analyzing character motivations, objectives, and goals.
c. Compare the physical, emotional, vocal, and social dimensions of a character.
d. Investigate the role and responsibility of the cast and crew.
e. Identify and model ensemble skills in the rehearsal process.
f. Utilize staging and blocking choices to enhance the performance.
g. Compare, contrast, and design elements of technical theatre.
h. Utilize theatre vocabulary throughout the rehearsal process.
Grade 7 - Performing
TA7.PR.2 - Execute artistic and technical elements of theatre.
a. Select a variety of technical elements that can be applied to a theatrical work.
b. Incorporate artistic and technical elements into a theatre performance.
Grade 8 - Creating
TA8.CR.1 - Organize, design, and refine theatrical work.
a. Differentiate the physical, emotional, vocal, and social dimensions of a variety of characters.
b. Compare the relationships and interactions between characters by analyzing character motivation (objectives, obstacles, strategy, action, stakes, outcome).
c. Incorporate dramatic elements through improvisation.
d. Connect theatre vocabulary to the application of theatre performance.
e. Identify and demonstrate both ensemble and leadership skills in the rehearsal process.
f. Evaluate the effectiveness of artistic and technical elements used in a theatre production.
g. Design and create scenery, props, costumes, lighting, and sound.
h. Assume different roles and responsibilities in the rehearsal process.
Grade 8 - Performing
TA8.PR.2 - Execute artistic and technical elements of theatre.
a. Incorporate artistic and technical elements into a theatre production.
b. Resolve conflicts in technical applications.
Grades 9-12 - ADVANCED DRAMA LEVELS I-IV -Performing
TAHSAD.PR.2 - Execute artistic and technical elements of theatre.
a. Engage as a creative team in script analysis to plan and create technical elements of a theatre production.
Grades 9-12 - FUNDAMENTALS OF THEATRE LEVELS I-IV - Performing
TAHSFT.PR.2 - Execute artistic and technical elements of theatre.
a. Identify and define the various collaborative roles and relationships of technical production personnel (e.g. sound, lighting, set, scenic, costume, dramaturge, makeup, marketing, business aspects) in relation to the directors and performers.
b. Identify and apply the various aspects of directing, staging, performance spaces, and rehearsal management.
c. Recognize and apply the basic elements and procedures involved in the construction of props, scenery, and platforms.
d. Formulate effective theatrical designs in order to support the text and directorial concept.
Grades 9-12 - MUSICAL THEATRE LEVELS I-IV - Performing
TAHSMT.PR.2 - Execute artistic and technical elements of theatre.
a. Engage as a creative team in script analysis to plan and create technical elements of a theatre production, including sets, props, costumes, makeup, lighting, and sound.
Grades 9-12 - TECHNICAL THEATRE LEVELS I-IV - Creating
TAHSTT.CR.1 - Create technical elements of theatre (e.g. sets, props, costumes, makeup, lighting, sound).
a. Explore and utilize the elements of design and principles of composition for a theatrical context.
b. Create basic to advanced technical elements by choosing appropriate materials, tools, and techniques.
c. Analyze and/or develop choices in technical elements (e.g. sets, lights, costumes, sound) of informal and formal productions and theatrical texts as a part of the design process, considering mood, tone, and symbolism.
d. Create industry standard paperwork (e.g. budgets, cut lists, materials, cue sheets, lighting and costume plots, schedules, calendars) as it relates to completing design renderings and/or models.
e. Conceptualize and/or generate design elements for a dramatic work (e.g. scene, one act, full-length, musical).
Grades 9-12 - TECHNICAL THEATRE LEVELS I-IV - Producing
TAHSTT.PR.1 - Produce technical elements in theatre.
a. Identify, explain, and demonstrate standard safety guidelines and operating procedures for tools and equipment used in formal and informal theatre productions.
b. Identify and interpret design and construction documentation, materials, techniques, and procedures for production.
c. Differentiate between stock and non-standard material, scenic, or technical elements related to a production.
d. Conduct initial research about design to inform further development of the production concept.
e. Explore and/or produce an appropriate series of design documentation for a theatrical production (e.g. thumbnail sketches, swatches, first renderings, mixed media presentation).
Grades 9-12 - TECHNICAL THEATRE LEVELS I-IV - Responding
TAHSTT.RE.1 - Respond to technical elements of theatre using appropriate supporting evidence.
a. Revise projects, plans, and/or procedures after peer criticism to improve development of technical elements.
b. Identify and analyze the characteristics of different types of performance spaces and how they can influence production decisions (e.g. proscenium stage, studio/black box, thrust stage, classroom, arena, found space).
c. Evaluate design choices of professional designers.
d. Evaluate design and technical elements in a post mortem following the completion of a theatre production.
Grades 9-12 - TECHNICAL THEATRE LEVELS I-IV - Connecting
TAHSTT.CN.1 - Connect technical elements of theatre.
a. Explore and understand the collaborations between designers and directors to develop design elements.
b. Investigate the history of theatre architecture, stage technology, and other technical elements.
c. Understand technical theatre career options and various industry unions (e.g. International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees, Actor’s Equity, United Scenic Artists, Stage Directors and Choreographers Society, League of Resident Theatres).
d. Explore connections with other disciplines associated with technical theatre (e.g. scientific principles behind technical theatrical practices, physics of electricity and sound, basic structural engineering, load ratings, working load limits).
e. Connect design themes with historical and social relevance using dramaturgical research and an understanding of historical and cultural artistic movements (e.g. expressionism, realism, Kabuki, Sanskrit Drama).
North Carolina Essential Standards
Beginning High School Standards - Aesthetics
B.AE.1.1 - Understand the major technical elements, such as sound, lights, set, and costumes, and their interrelationships.
B.AE.1.2 - Explain how the major technical elements, such as sound, lights, set, and costumes, are used to enhance formal or informal productions.
Intermediate High School Standards - Aesthetics
I.AE.1.1 - Use technical knowledge and design skills to formulate designs.
I.AE.1.2 - Use the major technical elements, such as sound, lights, set, and costumes, for formal or informal audiences.
Advanced High School Standards - Aesthetics
A.AE.1.1 - Use technical knowledge and design skills to formulate designs for a specific audience.
A.AE.1.2 - Use the knowledge and skills associated with technical roles, such as lighting operator, prop master, or stage manager, in an appropriate and effective manner.
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Theatre Arts
MS 117.211 LI - Foundations: Inquiry and Understanding
C.1.E - identify theatrical vocabulary and terminology, including basic anatomy of theatre spaces.
MS 117.213 LIII - Creative Expression: production
B.3.A - recognize and select specific technical elements to suggest environment, establish mood, and support character and actions for performance.
B.3.B - create theatrical elements such as scenery, properties, lighting, sound, costume, makeup, and publicity using the principles of design.
B.3.D - use technology in theatrical applications such as live theatre, video, and film.
HS 117.315 LI - Creative Expression: production
C.3.A - develop and practice technical theatre skills.
C.3.B - apply technical knowledge and skills safely to create or operate theatrical elements such as scenery, properties, lighting, sound, costumes, makeup, current technology, or publicity.
C.3.C - perform a role such as actor, director, designer, technician, or editor in production decision making and collaborate with others in a production role to tell a story through live theatre or media performance.
HS 117.317 LIII - Creative Expression: production
C.3.A - experiment with technical elements of theatre safely and effectively in improvisation or scripted scenes or plays.
C.3.B - analyze and evaluate dramatic texts as a basis for technical discussions, considering themes, settings, times, literary styles, genres, and characters.
HS 117.318 LIV - Creative Expression: production
C.3.F - apply expertise in one or more areas of theatre production, demonstrating responsibility, artistic discipline, and creative problem solving.
Technical Theatre/Design 10-20-30 - Lighting
1 - demonstrate understanding of the purpose of stage lighting
10 - demonstrate safe and proper care in handling and maintaining available lighting instruments
2 - recognize the importance of illusion in lighting design
3 - demonstrate understanding of the important of artistic unity in lighting design
4 - demonstrate knowledge of appropriate safety procedures
5 - demonstrate understanding of functions of standard lighting instruments: flood, fresnel, ellipsoidal, follow spotlight, border lights
6 - demonstrate understanding of functions of gels, barn doors, gobos, c-clamps, shutters
7 - demonstrate understanding of basic functions of lighting control systems
8 - demonstrate understanding of symbolism and psychological implications of colour, angle, intensity and timing in creating mood
9 - demonstrate understanding that gels affect the way colour is perceived in scenery, costume and makeup
generate imaginative and creative solutions to problems
meet deadlines and follow through on individual and group commitments
share ideas confidently with others
support positivity the work of others
understand that technical elements enhance verbal/physical communication
work cooperatively and productively with all members of the class in pairs, small groups and large groups
Junior Goal I Objectives
develop a sense of responsibility and commitment
develop the ability to initiate, organize and present a project within a given set of guidelines
develop the ability to interact effectively and constructively in a group process
develop the ability to offer and accept constructive criticism
develop the willingness to make a decision, act upon it and accept the results
Technical Theatre - Levels I, II, III - Awareness
1 - recognize the basic terminology associated with the component being studied
2 - demonstrate understanding of the basic functions of the component being studied.
3 - show awareness of the importance of research
4 - show awareness of available resources pertaining to the component being studied; e.g., supplies, libraries and theatre companies
5 - demonstrate understanding of the various conventions of the components being studied
Technical Theatre - Levels I, II, III - Readiness
10 - demonstrate understanding of and use appropriate methods and tools for designing the project; e.g., makeup charts, cue sheets, working drawing
6 - demonstrate understanding of the importance of planning and organization
7 - select a project appropriate to the component being studied
8 - demonstrate understanding of the use of colour, shape and texture to achieve a desired effect
Technical Theatre - Application
16 - demonstrate the integration of technical theatre with other disciplines in order to enhance dramatic communication
British Columbia (2018)
GRADE 9 - DRAMA - Exploring and creating
Select and combine dramatic elements and principles to intentionally create a particular mood, effect, and meaning
GRADE 9 - DRAMA - Reasoning and reflecting
Describe, interpret, and evaluate how performers and playwrights use dramatic structures, elements, and techniques to create and communicate ideas
Develop and refine ideas and technical skills to improve the quality of performance pieces
GRADE 9 - DRAMA - Communicating and documenting
Compose, interpret, and expand ideas using symbolism, imagery, and elements
GRADE 10 - DRAMA - Explore and Create
Experiment with a range of props, processes, and technologies
GRADE 11 - DRAMA - Explore and Create
Experiment with a range of materials, props, processes, and technologies to create and refine performances
Purposefully select and combine dramatic elements and conventions
GRADE 11 - DRAMA - Reason and reflect
Describe, analyze, and respond to ways in which props, technologies, and environments are used in drama, using discipline-specific language
GRADE 12 - DRAMA - Explore and Create
Experiment with a range of props, processes, and technologies to create and refine innovative dramatic works
Intentionally select and combine dramatic elements and conventions
GRADE 12 - DRAMA - Reason and reflect
Describe, analyze, and evaluate ways in which props, technologies, and environments are used in drama, using discipline-specific language
Grades 9 & 10 - Foundations - Concepts and Terminology
C.1.3 - demonstrate an understanding of production roles, practices, and terminology when planning and presenting drama works (e.g., set design, costume design, lighting plot, light cue sheet, sound cue sheet, prompt book, set sketch, set model)
Virginia Standards Of Learning (2020)
TT.3 - The student will analyze, interpret, and evaluate aspects of technical theatre.
TT.4 - The student will explain and justify personal preferences for theatre design using appropriate vocabulary.
TT.12 - The student will identify and apply safety guidelines for all aspects of technical theatre work.
TT.19 - The student will demonstrate lighting design and production.